Sleep Paralysis: Science, History and How I Learned to Make Sleep Paralysis Feel Less Freaky

Earlier this week, I guest-hosted a Halloween-themed Nerd Nite here in DC. I’m not big on the supernatural or spiritual, but I had some thoughts to share about sleep paralysis, a phenomenon I started experiencing – and was lucky enough to learn about – at a pretty young age.

What the heck is sleep paralysis?

Sleep paralysis can occur for a variety of reasons. I think mine is related to my sleep apnea. Occasionally, while I’m sleeping, I’ll shift around in such a way that my airway gets cut off. This results in snoring and a bunch of loud snoring-like sounds. It also results in my body waking me up so I can start breathing again.


If my body wakes me up during so-called “REM” sleep, that can result in a sleep paralysis episode. During REM sleep, our bodies shut down our muscles. When we experience sleep paralysis, we are conscious or semi-conscious while our muscles are shut down. We can’t move. And often, we can’t breathe either.

My sleep paralysis

I first experienced this around 11 or 12. I remember waking up, seeing my bedroom and not being able to move a muscle. When I tried to move, it felt like I was caught in molasses. I couldn’t breathe. As I ran out of air, my body finally snapped awake and I could breathe again. I remember trying to call out for my mother during an episode, too, and all that came out was a weak groan.

I’m lucky. My sleep paralysis is pretty mild and at the time, I just dismissed these episodes as bad dreams. A few years later, I learned what was actually happening to me when I picked up a copy of The Demon-Haunted World by Carl Sagan, which remains my favorite book. In his guide to science-based skepticism, Sagan touches on how sleep paralysis can result in people seeing shadowy figures in the room with them and other dream-like hallucinations. Indeed, some people’s personal recollections of sleep paralysis sound quite terrifying.

Henry Fuseli's The Nightmare probably depicts sleep paralysis. The imp is sitting on the woman's chest restricting her breathing and the shadowy figure in the background is depicted here as a freaky, googly-eyed horse. Source: via Wikipedia.
Henry Fuseli’s The Nightmare probably depicts sleep paralysis. The imp is sitting on the woman’s chest restricting her breathing and the shadowy figure in the background is depicted here as a freaky, googly-eyed horse. Source: via Wikipedia.

Sleep paralysis in folklore and history

Sagan and other skeptical thinkers, including Susan Blackmore, have detailed how sleep paralysis crops up in folklore all around the world. There’s the “Old Hag” of Newfoundland, who sits on your chest, there are demons and incubi, jinns, and other supernatural figures, including ones that tie you down with iron chains.

Sleep paralysis also crops up in the Salem Witch Trials. According to Cotton Mather’s second-hand accounts, in 1692:

Bernard Peach, gave ‘evidence’, testifying that “he heard a scrabbling at the window, whereat he then saw Susanna Martin come in, and jump down upon the floor. She took hold of this deponent’s feet, and drawing his body up into an heap, she lay upon him near two hours; in all which time he could neither speak nor stir.” When the paralysis began to wear off he bit Martin’s fingers and she “went from the chamber, down the stairs, out at the door.”

That certainly sounds like sleep paralysis. And it’s easy to imagine someone really believing that Susanna Martin did this to him. It’s a scary experience and if you’re living in colonial society during a witch craze, that may seem like a totally plausible explanation.

Shadowy alien figures looming over a paralyzed dreamer? Screengrab from "Unsealed Alien Files," ably made fun of by BJ White at Adventures in Poor Taste.
Shadowy alien figures looming over a paralyzed dreamer? Screengrab from “Unsealed Alien Files,” ably made fun of by BJ White at Adventures in Poor Taste.

Similarly, Susan Blackmore argues that sleep-paralysis-like symptoms crop up in modern-day alien abduction stories. Indeed, she writes, one study found that nighttime abduction stories were more likely to include paralysis than daytime ones.

Snapping out of it and not getting freaked out

Speaking for myself, learning more about sleep paralysis made these experiences so much less distressing or freaky. I remember having a few episodes – again, as a kid – and just concentrating on what it felt like to very slowly move my fingers or to concentrate on how much breath I had left as I counted down to snapping awake. This was by no means pleasant, of course, but it became more of an interesting experience than a scary one.

I was also interested to learn that in Latvian folklore, sleep paralysis sufferers are similarly advised to wiggle their toes to ward off the supernatural forces that are pestering them.

Still, this can be scary stuff

A new documentary is making the rounds in the United Kingdom called The Nightmare, which focuses on sleep paralysis and folks who have suffered mightily from it. Their experiences really do sound terrible and the psychological distress people can experience as a result of sleep paralysis is quite real.

Indeed, some doctors think that Hmong people who came to the United States as refugees from Laos during the Vietnam War suffered mightily from sleep paralysis. According to Alexis Madrigal, writing in The Atlantic, the Hmong believed that properly honoring one’s ancestors could ward off the supernatural forces that caused sleep paralysis. But after being displaced, many felt they were unable to do so. Shockingly, more than 100 otherwise healthy Hmong men died in their sleep following their displacement from Laos, perhaps as a result, Madrigal writes, of genetic heart problems combined with feeling helplessly attacked by supernatural forces during the night.

Ripoff Watch at; Moon Real Estate Purchases are Not Real

I’ve updated this post since 2009. Nothing has changed since then. It is still a mistake to purchase a gift from Please see below for a brief explanation as to why, some alternative gift suggestions and a deeper examination of claims made on

A friend of a friend inquired about purchasing a holiday gift — one acre of lunar real estate — at today. I strongly recommended a “no.”

The United Nations Outer Space Treaty states “outer space is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means.”

Dennis Hope, who appears to own, says he’s exempt from the treaty because UN treaties only apply to countries. But nations and governments convey property rights to individuals. Therefore, his argument falls apart with only cursory scrutiny.

While someone may own some part of the moon someday, it’s hard to believe that a “legal” document entitling someone to a piece of the moon today will hold any weight in the future.

But that hasn’t stopped Hope from selling certificates that claim to entitle people to lunar real estate — for as “little” as $29.95. appears to be affiliated with his Lunar Embassy Corporation. Hope told National Geographic he had sold more than 2,500,000 1-acre plots of lunar land. At current prices, that would constitute nearly $75,000,000 worth of non-legally-binding paper, assuming no one goes for the upgraded, personalized certificates.

NatGeo has a more in-depth explanation for why moon real estate sales are a joke.

If you really do have a space enthusaist in your life, I would recommend any number of other gifts, including Cosmos on DVD, Star Trek box sets, telescopes and planispheres.

What further interested me was Lunar Land’s attempt to beat back skepticism on its own Web site.

We think, skepticism is a good and healthy thing, but when you are selling a ground breaking product, and you’re doing it on a legal basis, correctly and with the best of intentions, skepticism can become a real problem.

Skepticism is good, but not when directed at me. Check.

We do receive, from time to time, a few understandable enquiries asking us if this is a joke or not. We know that the Internet contains many joke sites, as well as many disreputable sites designed for purely fraudulent purposes.

Assuming Hope believes his own spin, I guess Lunar Land isn’t “purely” fraudulent.

We would like to reassure you that this is not such a site. However, due to the uniqueness of the product on sale here, we wish to give you this written reassurance. It is of course difficult to determine if this is a fraud while you are just sitting there surfing the net.

Unless you are good at using Google and find reputable articles disputing the claims on this Web site.

Let us explain what the Lunar Embassy is actually doing. Dennis Hope has been in the business of selling Lunar Property for over 28 years.

And people have been selling fake cancer cures for even longer. In Lunar Land’s defense, they aren’t killing anybody.

In all this time, and millions of customers later (and increasing rapidly), we have never had a single unsatisfied customer. We are very proud of this track record.

I’m sure that most people are happy with their purchase. They shouldn’t be. Though I do commend Lunar Land for following through on their orders and presumably promptly shipping certificates to people’s homes.

Two former US Presidents and many very prominent celebrities own their Lunar property already.

I’m sure some celebs have bought property. They also do a lot of dumb stuff. As for presidents, this is carefully worded and I expect some of their supporters have bought certificates for them.

The worldwide press attention the Lunar Embassy is receiving is enormous.(Please view the Press section of our web site for further information.)

I see a vaguely skeptical CNN article from 2000.

If you still think this is a fraud, we would like you to ask one of the Internet’s best known and vigilant consumer watchdog organizations called Netcheck. The Lunar Embassy is a member of the Netcheck Internet Commerce Bureau. There you can consult our company register, and see if anyone has filed a complaint against our company…

Not surprisingly, Netcheck doesn’t endorse the companies it monitors. They seem to just make sure they’re delivering their products and resolving complaints, much like an online Better Business Bureau.

Oddly, Hope’s other Web site, the Lunar Embassy Corporation, warns visitors not to trust other moon property outlets:

“BEWARE of othrr Lunar’ companies selling Moon property. They might seem legitimate but the Lunar Embassy is THE ONLY COMPANY in the world to possess a legal basis and copyright for the sale of Lunar and other extraterrestrial property within the confines of our solar system since the year 1980.”